Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus Paper

Endocrine System

Disorders of the endocrine system have a significant impact on the body. Consider the effects of unmanaged diabetes. Kali Collins, a 10-year-old Colorado girl, helped prevent a potentially fatal accident after her mother, Erin Bolefahr, went into diabetic shock while behind the wheel. After Erin began driving erratically, Kali phoned for help. Police were able to locate the vehicle and provide medical care to an unresponsive Erin (Huffington Post, 2012). If Erin’s diabetes had been properly managed, her daughter would have never been in such immediate danger. This case emphasizes the importance of properly identifying, treating, and managing diabetes. With diabetes and its associated alterations presenting serious medical complications, it is essential for advanced practice nurses to have a strong understanding of this endocrine disorder. In the clinical setting, patients with diabetes and other endocrine disorders will require extensive patient education and supervised care.

This week you examine the pathophysiology of diabetes. You also explore the impact of patient factors on the disorder.

Reference
Kali Collins, 10-year-old Colo. girl, saves family by calling 911 when mom goes into diabetic shock while driving. (2012, March 6). Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/06/kali-coll…

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Compare the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

Evaluate the impact of patient factors on diabetes

Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the endocrine system

Photo Credit: ericsphotography/E+/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Chapter 18, “Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation”
This chapter explores mechanisms of hormonal regulation and the structure and function of the endocrine glands. It provides a foundation for examining alterations of the endocrine system, as well as the effects of aging on the endocrine glands.

Chapter 19, “Alterations of Hormonal Regulation”
This chapter begins with an explanation of the mechanisms of hormonal alterations. It then discusses alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, thyroid function, parathyroid function, endocrine pancreas, and adrenal function. It also covers the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 17, “Disorders of the Parathyroids & Calcium & Phosphorus Metabolism”

This chapter explores the anatomy, histology, and associated mechanisms of the parathyroid glands, bone, vitamin D, and C cells. It then examines various disorders involving altered regulation of parathyroids, calcium, and phosphorous metabolism.
 Chapter 18, “Disorders of the Endocrine Pancreas”
This chapter explores the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the endocrine pancreas. It then covers the clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of endocrine pancreas disorders such as diabetes mellitus.

Chapter 19, “Disorders of the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland”
This chapter covers the structure and function of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. It then explores disorders relating to alterations of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

Chapter 20, “Thyroid Disease”
This chapter explains thyroid hormones, including how they are formed and secreted. It then examines thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and goiters.

Optional Resources

American Diabetes Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/

The Endocrine Society. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.endo-society.org/

The Hormone Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.hormone.org/

American Diabetes Association. (2011). Diabetes statistics. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-s…

Assignment: Diabetes

According to the American Diabetes Association (2011), 25.8 million children and adults have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States. Approximately 2 million more are diagnosed every year, with another 79 million people considered to be in a pre-diabetes state. These millions of people are at risk of several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. Since diabetes has a major impact on the health of millions of people around the world, it is essential for nurses to understand the pathophysiology and associated alterations of this disorder. In this Discussion, you compare two types of diabetes—diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

To Prepare

Review Chapter 19 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 18 in the Hammer and McPhee text. Identify the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Consider the similarities and differences between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation.

Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes.

Write an explanation of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Describe the differences and similarities between resulting alterations of hormonal regulation. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the diagnosis and prescription of treatment for these two types of diabetes.

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